Al-Andalus was the Islamic realm that covered the whole of modern Portugal and Spain and even reached in to the south of France at one stage. In the year 711CE, Muslim armies fanned across the Iberian peninsula and as with north Africa and the Levant, Iberia became part of the Islamic world. For three hundred years, most of the peninsula remained under the rule of the caliphate with its capital at Cordoba. It then fractured in to rival ‘taifas’ before falling under the Almohads, who we would probably term ‘fundamentalist’ now.
The tenth century was arguably the high point of Islamic – or Moorish – rule in Al-Andalus and it’s been estimated that about two thirds of the population was Muslim by this time. Jews and Christians had a lesser status and paid the jizya tax but there was an interesting cross-fertilisation between the three religions with cities like Toledo and Seville having churches, synagogues and mosques rubbing up against each other. Al-Andalus produced some fine thinkers including Abu al-Qasim and the Jewish philosopher, Maimonides. When the crusaders did eventually take Al-Andalus, they also imbibed the contents of its libraries and schools – which undoubtedly influenced Christian thinkers in the later Middle Ages and in to the Renaissance. I’ll be blogging more about Al-Andalus in the weeks ahead.
Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936–1013), also known in the West as Abulcasis, was a Moorish physician who lived in Al-Andalus, Spain. He is considered the greatest medieval surgeon to have appeared from the Islamic World, and has been described by some as the father of modern surgery. His greatest contribution to medicine is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices. His pioneering contributions to the field of surgical procedures and instruments had an enormous impact in the East and West well into the modern period, where some of his discoveries are still applied in medicine to this day.