The Templar Knight

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Lisbon conquered in the Crusades!

This is an astonishing story from the Middle Ages of how a vast crusader army on the way to the Holy Land was convinced to divert to Portugal and help a small Christian kingdom take a city called Al-Usbuna from…

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Spain and Portugal – battle between Islam and Christianity

Hard to believe that modern Spain and Portugal were once part of a global caliphate (from 711 CE) – ruled by Muslim emirs. It then became a battleground between Islam and Christianity for eight hundred years. Finally, by 1492, the…

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How did buildings swap from being churches to mosques and back again?

Toledo in Spain shows how Christians and Muslims lived together and even allowed churches to become mosques and vice versa

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