In 1187, the Knights Templar suffered a horrific defeat at the hands of Saladin – a worthy foe of the crusader kingdoms. After years of disunity, he brought together the Muslim world to drive out the “Franks”. Ignoring all warning signs, the crusaders and Templars engaged the enemy at the so-called Horns of Hattin.
I’ve visited the Horns of Hattin in modern Israel. A very striking geological formation – basically an extinct volcano with two horns that are part of the ancient crater rim. The mountain is also believed by some Christians to be where Jesus delivered the Sermon on the Mount. Though most agree that happened on the Mount of Beatitudes some distance away.
You’ll remember the Battle of Hattin in 1187 was re-enacted in the movie Kingdom of Heaven. The aftermath was a vengeful bloodbath by Saladin against the Templars for refusing to convert to Islam and other crusaders who had offended him.
Battle of Hattin – turning point for the Knights Templar
For a hundred years, things had gone the crusader way. Armies had landed from Europe in the Middle East and taken Jerusalem and other cities. Crusader kingdoms had been established, carved out of Muslim territory. Disunity among the enemy had allowed the Christian rulers time to establish their new realms.
But by the reign of the muslim leader Saladin, there was a new resolve to push the crusaders out once and for all. Saladin had managed through force and guile to unite the Islamic east whereas now, in marked contrast, it was the crusaders who were at each other’s throats. The leper king of Jerusalem Baldwin IV had finally died of his debilitating disorder and been succeeded by Baldwin V – his nephew. Baldwin V was a child and the regency – real decision making – passed to Raymond of Tripoli.
Unfortunately, Baldwin V died very young and this sparked off a succession crisis. The agreed plan had been for Raymond to remain regent until the Pope and Europe’s great monarchs expressed their preference. But Baldwin V’s mother Sybilla had no interest in such formalities and essentially grabbed the crown for herself and her husband Guy. Raymond, in the foulest of moods, slunk off to Nablus. He formed a faction that was extremely hostile to Sybilla who was basically viewed as something of an illegal usurper.
Crusader disunity leads directly to the Battle of Hattin
Saladin must have viewed these splits within the crusader camp with glee. What would have also given him an excellent pretext to attack was the activities of medieval headbanger and all round psychopath – Reynald of Chatillon.
The so-called ‘men of Jerusalem’ – long established crusader families in the kingdom – had come to something of a modus vivendi with the Arab and muslim world. There was no need to antagonise the neighbours – why not just get along and get wealthy? But Reynald had no intention of getting on with the muslim world. No, he was spoiling for a fight 24/7.
His favourite activity seems to have been attacking caravan trains trekking through the desert laden with goods. The story that he attacked one which included Saladin’s sister is possible erroneous and is a confusion of two stories. the Arab chroniclers do not agree that Reynald took or even killed Saladin’s sister or any other relative.
Assaulting caravans was small beer compared to Reynald’s most audacious and lunatic project which was to descend on Mecca with a crusader force and dig up the tomb of the prophet Mohammed. Needless to say that never happened.
If Saladin was looking for a reason to push the crusaders in to the sea – then Reynald handed him several on a plate. Having been a prisoner of the caliphate for 17 years in Aleppo, Reynald just couldn’t contain his hatred of the saracens and further outrages impelled Saladin to march on Jerusalem.
Saracens take advantage of crusader treachery
As Saladin prepared for war, the disunity among the crusaders had appalling results. Turning his back on King Guy in Jerusalem, Raymond of Tripoli made a truce with Saladin. Bohemond of Antioch also renewed an existing truce. As a result, Raymond was honourably obliged to allow Saladin’s troops to move through his territory, which duly happened.
Regretablly, this multi-thousand Saracen force met a much smaller Templar army and predictably – wiped it out. Raymond now seems to have decided that he was probably next on Saladin’s hit list and sank his differences with Guy.
FIND OUT MORE: Spies who infiltrated the Knights Templar
These spats between crusader princes look insane to our eyes but in so many ways were an extension of the turbulent feudal politics of mainland Europe – a continent divided up in to a patchwork of rival duchies, counties, kingdoms, principalities, bishoprics, etc, etc. Petty warfare just exported itself from Europe to the crusader kingdoms of outremer.
Carnage at the Battle of Hattin
Saladin lured the crusaders to where he wanted them by attacking and taking Tiberias – holed up in the citadel and fighting to the last was Raymond’s wife. He naturally flew to her aid. This proved to be a disastrous error and it was on the dry and parched hill of Hattin that the crusaders and Templars camped ahead of fighting Saladin. The Saracens were in the valley with their supply routes intact. The crusaders had a dry well and not much to eat and drink. They were also tired from their marching.
Hattin shows a degree of remarkable tactical incompetence by the crusaders. Here you have an army in full, heavy chain mail and helmets camped out in the blazing sun. It wasn’t as if the crusaders had no knowledge of the climate. Yet they marched themselves into a terrible position that the Saracens didn’t fail to exploit.
Saladin famously lit fires round the hill where the crusaders were camped to make their thirst that much more unbearable. He then fired arrows through the smoke and slew the Christians where they stood. The battle was lost before it was fought. Here is how Kingdom of Heaven portrayed the carnage.