What was the origin of the Knights Templar?
We claim to know the Templars but ask yourself a few questions and you’ll realise you know less than you think. They were an order of knights shrouded in mystery from the outset. Subject to lies. Distortions. And not beyond constructing their own PR narratives. So – just who were the Knights Templar?
We have the accounts of medieval chroniclers who wrote – often quite bitchily – about them at the time. But from the Templars – silence. Their own records went up in flames centuries ago. Maybe in Jerusalem. Or in Acre. Or on the island of Cyprus.
It’s even led some to claim that the Knights Templar were illiterate. More likely though, what they had to say in their own defence and their day to day bookkeeping was lost in the confusion that followed their destruction.
What we can say with confidence is that the origin of the Knights Templar is rooted in the invasion of Jerusalem by crusaders in the year 1099.
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Jerusalem as a Muslim controlled city
Jerusalem was taken by the Muslim caliphate in 638CE ending centuries of Roman rule. The late Roman – or Byzantine – period had seen the city become one of the great centres of Christendom. Its patriarch was one of five leading patriarchs in Christianity – the others being Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople and Rome. At the centre of the city was the church of the Holy Sepulchre built under the Emperor Constantine and covering the sites of the crucifixion and burial of Jesus.
Throughout the early period of Islamic rule, Christians continued to visit Jerusalem on pilgrimage and revere the holy sites. But in the eleventh century, the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim – widely assumed to have been mentally disturbed – demolished the city’s churches reducing the Holy Sepulchre to rubble. To add to Christian woes, reports circulated of pilgrims being systematically robbed and worse as they made their way to the city.
Here I am below in the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem (minus beard!) in 2012.
The crusaders take Jerusalem
In 1099, a Crusader army stormed Jerusalem ending four hundred years of Muslim rule. Contemporary accounts suggest a huge massacre ensued of Jews, Muslims and anybody who got in the way. The blood, it was said, splashed on the crusader stirrups. Even allowing for a certain degree of hyperbole, it does seem to have been a violent event.
The crusaders were western knights who had been heeding the call of Pope Urban to defend the holy places in the east. This they did with gusto! The pope in turn had been responding to a call from the Byzantine emperor in Constantinople to defend what was left of his empire from the forces of Islam.
After two centuries of the Byzantines enjoying a position of relative strength in relation to the caliphate, they had suffered a terrible defeat against the Turks at the battle of Manzikert in 1071. This defeat would eventually lead to the complete transformation of Anatolia from Greek speaking and Christian to Turkish and Muslim.
The Knights Templar origin story – set up to defend pilgrims to Jerusalem
Into this very volatile situation came a group of French knights led by Hugues de Payens. They approached King Baldwin II of crusader-controlled Jerusalem and the patriarch in 1118 with the novel idea of setting up a militaristic order of monks that would protect pilgrims. This was very much in keeping with the ethos of a church that carried a bible in one hand and a sword in the other. It was a muscular and very medieval approach to the defence of Christ.
The band of knights were allowed to base themselves in what had been the Al Aqsa mosque on the Temple Mount. This site had housed the long destroyed Jewish temple and was revered by Christians. In turn, it had become a holy place for Muslims.
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Now under crusader rule, the Al Aqsa mosque and the Dome of the Rock – both early Muslim buildings – became the temple of Solomon and the Templum Domini respectively. Basing themselves in what they believed had once been the temple of Solomon – the new order of knights called themselves the Poor-Fellow Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon. Or the Knights Templar for short.
And that began a two hundred year story chronicled by me on this blog.